The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by cartographer Nicolas Desliens, where it showed the island Manarow (today’s Manado Tua). Before Europeans arrived to North Sulawesi the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced the Muslim religion among some of its inhabitants. The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, taking possession of the Minahasa and established a factory in Wenang.

Meanwhile, the Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[5] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo.[6]

Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[7] Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later.


The Minahasans (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Minahasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa people would refer to themselves as Kawanua people, Touwenang people or more commonly as Manado people. They are actually a nation with the oldest democracy and federal nation in the middle of the other Indonesian Tribes, even in Asia, because of their old tribal united government (declared in Watu Pinawetengan). They are the most populous ethnic group in the Minahassa Peninsula. They have the big majority Christian among the country (Indonesia) with the Muslim majority.

The Minahasans speak Minahasan languages as a sub-tribal language for every sub-tribe of Minahasa and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language as the national language in the local area.

Minahasa Raya is the area covering Bitung City, Manado City, Tomohon City, Minahasa Regency, North Minahasa Regency, South Minahasa Regency and Southeast Minahasa Regency, which are altogether seven of the fifteen regional administrations in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Originally inhabited by Philippine languages-speaking peoples, the region was colonized in the 16th century by the Portuguese and Spanish, then in the 17th century by the Dutch.

In the Dutch East Indies the Minahasa people identified strongly with the Dutch language, culture, and the Protestant faith — so strongly, in fact, that when Indonesia became independent in 1945 certain factions of political elites of the region even pleaded with the Dutch to let it become a province of the Netherlands. The centuries-old strong bond between the Minahasa and the Netherlands has recently been studied and explained using the Stranger King concept.

There is a considerable number of people from the Minahasa living in the Netherlands, as part of the Indo (Eurasian) community.

Help us improve the translation for your language

You can change any text by clicking on (press Enter after changing)